Free download complete engineering seminar Iontophoresis Seminar Report pdf. Here we are giving you Iontophoresis Seminar and PPT with PDF report. All you need to do is just click on the download link and get it. Seminar on Iontophoresis Drug Delivery System .. Reports have appeared in literature showing appreciable levels of certain drugs in underlying deeper.
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Current methods of kidney dialysis are invasive and very time intensive for the patient. Principles of Electrical Stimulation.
In addition, reverse iontophoresis could be extended to an unlimited number of capabilities.? Therapeutic results depend on the ion introduced, the pathology present and the desired effects. Generally, hyperemia repott both electrodes lasts within one hour, causing no more discomfort to the patient.
Most researches have indicated that low-level amplitude is more effective than high-level intensities, as higher intensities adversely affect ionic penetration. As mentioned previously, a current in the range of 17 to 99 mA can kill a human being so the reverse iontophoresis device must operate under this range? A3 Improvement of Scientific Knowledge: Galvani and Volta, two well-known scientists working in the 18th century, combined the knowledge that electricity can move different metal ions, and that movements of ions produce electricity In clinical practice, iontophoresis devices are used primarily for the treatment of inflammatory conditions in skin, muscles, tendons and joints, repoft as in temperomandibular joint dysfunctions.
Other barriers for the use of reverse iontophoresis as an alternative to kidney dialysis include the properties of the skin and safety issues regarding the application of an electric current to the skin.
When the molecular size increases, the permeability coefficient decreases. The purpose of reverse iontophoresis in this application was to monitor blood urea levels without using invasive testing methods.
Free Download Iontophoresis PPT with PDF Report
Iontophoresis | Seminar Report, PPT, PDF for Mechanical
The pH is of importance for the iontophoretic delivery of drugs. The latter ion is of opposite charge is referred to as a counter-ion. A method that has the potential to do this is reverse iontophoresis.
It has proven to be a beneficial treatment for many localized skin disorders such as; nail diseases, Herpies lesions, psoriasis, eczematous, and cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Experiments in vivo and invitro gives support for clinical findings that there are small differences in the flux rate following transdermal iontophoresis between males and females, as well as between hairy and hairless skin.
The five year survival rate for iontophoresia on kidney dialysis is only When a negatively charged drug is to be delivered across an epithelial barrier which is placed under the negatively charged delivery electrode cathode from which it is repelled, to be attracted to the positive electrode placed elsewhere on the body. Finally, the accuracy of the device, while already quite good, needs to be improved before reverse iontophoresis can potentially replace dialysis.
According to the laws of physics, electrons flow from negative to positive, regardless of electrode size. Obviously, negatively charged ions will behave in the same manner.
These include the physiochemical properties of the compound molecular size, charge, concentrationdrug formulation, type of vehicle, buffer, pH, viscosity, pressure of other ionsequipment used available current range, constant versus pulsed current, type of electrodebiological variations skin site, regional blood flow, age, sexskin temperature and repoft of iontophoresis.
Due to the GlucoWatch successfully utilizing reverse iontophoresis in a passive manner, it stands to reason that reverse iontophoresis can srminar used in a more active role.? At the end of this lecture the student must be able to: Iontophoresis reduces intra- and inter- subject variability in deliver rate.
In our example, this means that when a positively charged drug is diluted in saline, the sodium ions will compete with the amount of sfminar ions to be delivered. In addition, there is an issue of safety with the actual device.? The choice of drug is of importance depending on whether the compound is unionised or ionised.
Iontophoresis requires two electrodes, one positively and one negatively charged. Section 1 Electric charge and static electricity. Current dialysis takes three to five hours for the procedure itself, not including travel time, and reverse iontophoresis has a lag time of approximately fifteen minutes?
Iontophoresis Seminar Report pdf
Electro-Chemical Equivalent represents standardized figures for ionic transfer with known currents and time factors. In anodal iontophoresis positively charged ionsthe electrode orientation is reversed. Placement of the electrodes is dependent on the polarity of the medication being delivered.
An external energy source can be used to increase the rate of penetration of drugs through the membrane. Today, it is currently being utilized as a method to monitor glucose levels in diabetic patients?